Bhagavān (Sanskrit: भगवान्, Bhagavān) or Bhagwan is an epithet for a deity, particularly for Krishna and other avatars of Lord Vishnu in Vaishnavism and for Lord Shiva in the Shaivism tradition of Hinduism. The term is used by Jains to refer to the Tirthankaras, particularly Mahavira, and by Buddhists to refer to Lord Buddha in India. In many parts of India and South Asia, Bhagavān represents the abstract concept of a universal God to Hindus that are spiritual and religious but do not worship a specific deity.The term Bhagavān does not appear in Vedas or in the early or middle Upanishads. There is the use of the term "Bhag" in Mundaka Upanishad, but not for the term "God". The word Ishwar is not used in Vedic scripture, except Ishawasyopanishad. The oldest Sanskrit texts use the term Brahman to represent an abstract Supreme Soul and Absolute Reality, while using names of deities like Krishna, Vishnu, Shiva to represent Gods and Goddesses. The term Ishvara appears in Vedas and Upanishads, where it is used to discuss spiritual concepts. The word Bhagavān is found in later Vedic shaastr, such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Puranas.In Bhakti school literature, the term is typically used for any deity to whom prayers are offered; for example, Rama, Ganesha, Krishna, Brahma, Shiva, or Vishnu. A particular deity is often the devotee's one and only Bhagavan. Bhagavan is male in Bhakti traditions, and the female equivalent of Bhagavān is Bhagavatī. To some Hindus, the word Bhagavan is an abstract, genderless concept of God. In Buddhism's Pali scriptures, the term is used to denote Gautama Buddha, referring to him as Bhagavān Buddha (translated with the phrase 'Lord Buddha' or 'The Blessed One') and Bhagavān Shakyamuni. The term Bhagavān is also found in other Theravada, Mahayana and Tantra Buddhist texts.